Anniversaries 20192018-12-19T21:43:33+00:00

2019 Anniversaries

400th anniversary

1619 Aug 29   Baptism of Andrew Yarranton, inland navigation promoter (Astley, Worcs.) (d. 1684).

1619 Dec –     First Lizard lighthouse illuminated.

300th anniversary

1719 Feb –     Birth of William Edwards, bridge engineer and preacher (Eglwysilan, Glam.) (d. 1789)

1719 Jul  1     Baptism of John Grundy jr, waterways engineer (Congerstone, Leics.) (d. 1783).

250th anniversary

1769 Mar 23   Birth of William Smith, canal engineer and geologist (Churchill, Oxon.) (d. 1839)

1769 Apr 21   Oxford Canal Act. Samuel Simcock appointed to set out its line.

1769 Jun 13   Josiah Wedgwood opens his Etruria Works beside the Trent & Mersey Canal.

1769 Aug  3   North Bridge, Edinburgh, part collapses while nearing completion (5 killed).

1769 Oct 20 c. First demonstration of a steam-powered road vehicle, by Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot in Paris.

1769 Oct 24   Stort Navigation completed to Bishop’s Stortford.

1769 Oct 31   Ure Navigation completed through Milby Cut (Boroughbridge) to Westwick Wath.

1769 Nov –     Shannon made navigable from Killaloe (Lough Derg) to Roosky above Lough Ree.

1769 Nov  6   Birmingham Canal opened to Wednesbury (James Brindley, engineer).

1769 Nov 19   First Blackfriars Bridge opened to wheeled traffic as Pitt Bridge in London (Robert Mylne, engineer).

1769 — –         Ouse Navigation opened Widdington Ings–Swale Nab.

1769 — –         Kymer’s Canal opened. Pwll-y-Llygod Bridge spanning the Gwendraeth Fawr and carrying a tramroad from Carway Colliery to the canal terminus is of the same date and is Wales’ oldest surviving tramroad bridge.

Bicentenary

1819 Mar  1    Montgomeryshire Canal Western Branch opened Garthmyl–Newtown (on restricted basis).

1819 Mar 10   Grosmont Rly (Monmouthshire) completed by this date.

1819 Apr  2    North Wilts Canal opened.

1819 Apr  5    A 36 hr schedule for the London–Dublin mails via the Holyhead Road is introduced, marking completion of Nant Francon embankment (Thomas Telford, engineer).

1819 Apr  6    Carlisle Canal authorised.

1819 Apr 13   Mansfield & Pinxton Rly opened.

1819 May 14  First iron-hulled inland waterways craft, passenger packet boat Vulcan, launched on Monkland Canal at Faskine, Airdrie, for service on Forth & Clyde Canal (Thomas Wilson, engineer).

1819 Jun 14   Bude Canal authorised in form as built (James Green, engineer).

1819 Jun 18   Lancaster Canal officially opened throughout to Kendal.

1819 Jun 20   SS Savannah, the first steamship to cross the Atlantic, arrives at Liverpool from its namesake port, although only a fraction of the trip is made under steam.

1819 Jun 24   James Foster and John Urpeth Rastrick form a partnership at Stourbridge.

1819 Jul –       New Steam Packet Co. introduces SS Talbot on seasonal Irish Sea passenger service, Holyhead–Howth.

1819 Jul  2     Plymouth & Dartmoor Rly incorporated.

1819 Jul  2     Roads Between London and Holyhead Act authorises building of Menai Suspension Bridge, construction of which begins in Aug.

1819 Jul 14    Birth of Benjamin Hall Blyth, railway civil engineer (Edinburgh) (d. 1866).

1819 Jul 22    PS Waterloo begins regular Belfast–Liverpool steam packet service.

1819 Jul 28    Birth of John Fraser, railway civil engineer (Linlithgow) (d. 1881).

1819 Aug  1   All Holyhead Road turnpikes come under a single trust, under terms of Act, May.

1819 Aug 18   Regent Bridge, Edinburgh, opened.

1819 Aug 25   Death of James Watt, mechanical engineer (Handsworth) (b. 1736).

1819 Sep  2   Henry Bell’s PS Comet begins regular Glasgow–Fort William service (via Crinan Canal).

1819 Sep 26   Birth of Edward Watkin, chairman, MS&LR, SER, Metropolitan Rly and Channel Tunnel Co. (Salford) (d. 1901).

1819 Sep 28   Windham Sadler makes a gas balloon voyage from Liverpool to Norton (near Stockton), Co. Durham.

1819 Oct 20   Birth of George Robert Stephenson, railway civil engineer (Newcastle) (d. 1905).

1819 Nov 16   Birth of John Pattinson, locomotive superintendent in Russia (Carlisle) (d. 1886).

1819 Nov 28   Birth of Walter Neilson, locomotive works founder (Glasgow) (d. 1889).

1819 — –         ‘Patent Safety’ coaches introduced.

175th anniversary

1844              Start of Railway Mania: 800 miles (1285 km) of line authorised this year.

1844 Jan  1    Eastern Counties Rly takes over operation of Northern & Eastern Rly.

1844 Jan  1    Manchester & Leeds Rly opens Miles Platting–Manchester Victoria (Hunts Bank).

1844 Jan  1    Bridgewater Canal Co. purchases Mersey & Irwell Navigation Co.

1844 Jan –      Edinburgh & Glasgow Rly builds the first locomotive at its Cowlairs works, 0-6-0T Hercules for working Cowlairs incline (William Paton, superintendent of locomotives).

1844 Feb  1    Skerryvore lighthouse first illuminated (Alan Stevenson, engineer).

1844 Feb c.1  General Steam Carriage Co. formed to operate steam road carriages to Hills’ patent.

1844 Feb  7    South Eastern Railway opens throughout London–Dover. Extended May 1 to Bricklayers Arms.

1844 Feb 14   Birmingham & Warwick Juncn and Tame Valley Canals opened in Birmingham area.

1844 Mar –      Dartford & Crayford Navigation completed.

1844 Mar  9    Wishaw & Coltness Rly opens Newarthill–Chapel.

1844 Mar 29   Kingstown & Dalkey Rly (Ireland) opens officially on atmospheric system.

1844 Apr 15   Newcastle & Darlington Juncn Rly opens Darlington–Rainton to goods; also Durham (Gilesgate) branch.

1844 Apr  5    Birth of R.J. Billinton, mechanical engineer (Wakefield) (d. 1904).

1844 Apr 30   Yarmouth & Norwich Rly opens.

1844 Apr c.    I.K. Brunel’s SS Great Britain*, fitting out at Cumberland Basin, Bristol, is photographed by W.H. Fox Talbot, the first known photograph of a ship.

1844 May  1   Bristol & Exeter Rly opens Beam Bridge–Exeter (through Whiteball Tunnel) worked by GWR (Orion), giving a continuous broad gauge line from Paddington of 194 miles (312 km). Last stage coaches taken off Exeter road.

1844 May  1   SER opens Bricklayers Arms terminus.

1844 May  4   Liverpool & Manchester Rly opens Ordsall–Manchester Victoria (used also by Manchester, Bolton & Bury trains); Manchester Liverpool Road and Oldham Road stations closed to passengers.

1844 May  6   J.M.W. Turner completes his painting Rain, Steam and Speed – The Great Western Railway.

1844 May 10  Midland Rly formed by merger of Midland Counties Rly, North Midland Railway and Birmingham & Derby Juncn Rly.

1844 May 17  Great Northern and London & York Rly schemes merge, initially under L&Y name.

1844 May 22  River Ancholme South Ferriby Sluice officially opened (John Rennie, engineer).

1844 May 24  Samuel Morse transmits the first telegraph message by Morse code, Washington, D.C.–Baltimore.

1844 May 26  Dublin & Drogheda Rly opens to public.

1844 May 27  West London Rly opens Willesden–Kensington Basin. New West London Juncn station at Willesden opens c. Jun; exchange station with GWR at Mitre Bridge crossing with mixed gauge to south for goods stock.

1844 May 27  Stockton & Darlington Rly Stockton suspension bridge replaced by 5-span cast-iron trussed girder (Robert Stephenson, engineer).

1844 Jun 12   GWR opens Didcot Juncn–Oxford terminus.

1844 Jun 15   Opening of first railway in Switzerland, from Basel to St Ludwig in Alsace.

1844 Jun 19   Newcastle & Darlington Juncn Rly opens Darlington–Rainton to regular passengers, with stock supplied by Great North of England Rly, giving access to Gateshead via Brockley Whins (by reversal until Aug 19).

1844 Jul  4     Railways authorised include Chester & Holyhead, North British and South Devon.

1844 Jul  8     Bristol & Gloucester Rly opens Westerleigh–Gloucester on broad gauge to passengers.

1844 Jul 19    Eastern Union Rly authorised.

1844 Aug  6    Birth of J.H. Greathead, civil engineer (Grahamstown, Cape Colony) (d. 1896).

1844 Aug  8   Sheffield, Ashton-under-Lyne & Manchester Rly opens Dinting–Woodhead to public.

1844 Aug  9   Railway Regulation Act (An Act to attach certain Conditions to the construction of future Railways, “Gladstone’s Act”). Introduces Parliamentary trains and provision for government to purchase new railways after 21 years if they are making excessive profits. Equivalents (a provision for companies to be protected from competing lines by agreeing permanent rate reductions) is dropped from the Bill.

1844 Aug end    South Wales Rly prospectus issued.

1844 Sep 25   SER opens Maidstone Road (Paddock Wood)–Maidstone.

1844 Sep–Oct   Eastern Counties Rly converts from 5 ft (1524 mm) to standard gauge.

1844 Oct –      Norwich & Lowestoft Navigation acquired from Exchequer Bill Loan Commissioners by Morton Peto, railway contractor.

1844 Oct –      River Severn Diglis Locks, Worcester completed.

1844 Nov 12   Iron steamship Gypsy Queen explodes under test on the Thames, killing 6 including its builder, engineer Jacob Samuda (b. 1811).

1844 Nov 28   Liskeard & Caradon Rly opens Cheesewring–Tremabe to horse-drawn minerals.

1844 Nov 29   Dublin & Drogheda Rly opens permanent Dublin station in Amiens Street.

1844 Nov 29   Edinburgh & Leith Rly tunnel floods catastrophically (4 killed).

1844 Nov 30   West London Rly passenger trains last operate until 1862.

1844 Dec  3   London & Birmingham Rly opens Warwick & Leamington Union Coventry–Kenilworth–Leamington–Warwick.

1844 Dec 11   I.K. Brunel’s SS Great Britain* is towed through his partly reconstructed Cumberland Basin south entrance lock into the Avon at Bristol.

1844 Dec 26   Monkland Rly opens Airdrie (Hallcraig)–Kirkintilloch to passengers.

Sesquicentenary

1869 Jan  1    L&SWR opens Kensington–Richmond and Coombe & Malden–Kingston.

1869 Jan 18   Accidents in London fog at Copenhagen Tunnel and Acton Richmond Juncn (2+1 killed).

1869 Feb  1    GER opens Bishop’s Stortford–Braintree.

1869 Mar  1    NER opens Hexham–Catton Road to passengers.

1869 Mar  7    Birth of Arthur C. Stamer, locomotive engineer, (L)NER (Shrewsbury) (d. 1944).

1869 Mar 14   GWR last runs broad gauge trains over Metropolitan Rly to Moorgate Street (operates narrow gauge trains from Jun 1) and broad gauge abandoned on Metropolitan and Hammersmith & City lines.

1869 Apr  1    GWR abandons broad gauge over Oxford, Worcester & Wolverhampton lines, also Reading–Basingstoke.

1869 Apr  1    L&NWR opens Weaver Juncn–Ditton cut-off to passengers (goods Feb 1), including Runcorn Bridge (lattice girder on stone piers; William Baker, engineer) and flyover at Weaver Juncn.

1869 Apr  1    NER opens Micklefield–Church Fenton.

1869 Apr ?1   Lee Conservancy Board takes over management of the river from Trustees of the Lea Navigation under terms of the Lee Conservancy Act 1868.

1869 Apr 12   Metropolitan District Rly opens Earls Court–Gloucester Road.

1869 Apr 19   Severn & Wye Rly opens Lydney Juncn–Wimberry to minerals.

1869 May  3   NBR opens Tillicoutry–Dollar.

1869 May 10  Golden spike driven by Leland Stanford at Promontory Summit, Utah, connecting the Central Pacific and Union Pacific Railroads in the US and marking completion of the first transcontinental railroad in North America; on May 15 the first through trains run between Omaha (Nebraska) and Sacramento (California).

1869 May 13  Wainfleet & Firsby Rly incorporated.

1869 Jun –      Last barge to carry cargo up the Itchen to Winchester unloads coal at Blackbridge Wharf.

1869 Jun  1    Furness Rly opens Windermere (Lake Side) branch.

1869 Jun  1    Methley Joint Rly opens Lofthouse–Methley to passengers.

1869 Jun  1    Lostwithiel & Fowey Rly opens Lostwithiel–Carne Point to minerals.

1869 Jun 19   Brecon & Merthyr Rly Maesycwmmer derailment due to excessive speed (3 killed).

1869 Jun 21   Cambrian Rlys opens Penmaenpool–Dolgelly (temporary terminus).

1869 Jun 23   Burry Port & Gwendraeth Valley Rly (converted from Kidwelly & Llanelly Canal) opens Burry Port–Pontyberem to minerals.

1869 Jun 24   Marple, New Mills & Hayfield Juncn Rly vested jointly in Manchester, Sheffield & Lincolnshire and Midland Rlys.

1869 Jun 24   Customs & Inland Revenue Act repeals duties on stage carriages and imposes new duties on private carriages and horses wef 1870.

1869 Jul  1     Carnarvon & Llanberis Rly opens.

1869 Jul  1     Newquay & Cornwall Juncn Rly opens Burngullow–Drinnick Mill to minerals.

1869 Jul  3     Mount Washington Cog Rly opens in US.

1869 Jul  9     Caledonian Rly opens Glasgow–Edinburgh via Midcalder to passengers.

1869 Jul  9     Festiniog Rly Act authorises improvements

1869 Jul 15    Festiniog Rly’s first Fairlie articulated double locomotive, Little Wonder, is displayed at its maker’s Hatcham Iron Works, London. It is delivered to the railway by Aug 26 and demonstrated on Sep 18.

1869 Jul 20    Watton & Swaffham Rly authorised.

1869 Jul 26    Watlington & Princes Risborough Rly authorised.

1869 Aug  1   Whitehaven, Cleator & Egremont Rly opens Sellafield–Egremont.

1869 Aug  2   Macclesfield, Bollington & Marple Rly opens Marple Wharf Juncn–Macclesfield (temporary station) to passengers on single track (1 Mar 1870 to goods).

1869 Aug  2   LB&SCR opens Kemp Town branch (Brighton).

1869 Aug  2   NER opens Thorne–Staddlethorpe, including Skelton viaduct (Goole swing bridge).

1869 Aug  3   B&ER opens Yatton–Cheddar.

1869 Aug  4   Midland Rly opens Mangotsfield–Bath (temporary terminus) to passengers.

1869 Aug  6   Birth of Ernest Trench, chief engineer, L&NWR (Ardfert Abbey, Co. Kerry) (d. 1960).

1869 Aug 14–20  GWR converts Hereford (Rotherwas Juncn)–Grange Court from broad to standard gauge.

1869 Aug 31   Scientist Mary Ward, Lady Bangor, becomes the world’s first fatality due to a mechanically-propelled road vehicle when thrown from her relations the Parsons family’s steam carriage at Parsonstown, Co. Offaly.

1869 Sep  1   L&NWR opens Dyserth branch to minerals.

1869 Sep  1   Cheshire Lines Rly opens West Cheshire line Northwich–Helsby to goods.

1869 Sep 12   L&NWR opens Mold–Denbigh Juncn to passengers (goods Sep 6).

1869 Sep 13   Solway Juncn Rly opens for iron ore traffic, including Solway viaduct (1 mile (1.8 km) iron girder).

1869 Oct 5–6  Festiniog Rly accidents: mixed trains derailed due to faulty loading of timber.

1869 Oct 13   Thetford & Watton Rly opens to passengers.

1869 Oct 24   GNR Welwyn Juncn accident: train derailed by points moved under it (3 killed).

1869 Nov  1   City of Liverpool Tramways open, first in the British Isles authorised by act of parliament (Liverpool Tramways Act 1868).

1869 Nov  6   City of London’s replacement Blackfriars Bridge (wrought iron; Joseph Cubitt, engineer) and Holborn Viaduct (cast iron; William Haywood, surveyor) officially opened by Queen Victoria.

1869 Nov 17   Suez Canal opened.

1869 Nov 22   Clipper ship Cutty Sark* launched by Scott & Linton at Dumbarton for John Willis.

1869 Nov 24   Albert Embankment in London officially opened (Joseph Bazalgette, engineer).

1869 Dec  1   Lancashire Union Rly opens Blackburn–Chorley–Wigan.

1869 Dec  7   East London Rly opens Wapping–New Cross Gate via Thames Tunnel.

1869 Dec 23   Greenock & Ayrshire Rly (G&SWR) opens Bridge of Weir–Greenock to passengers (goods Aug 30) including Greenock Prince’s Pier.

1869 — –         Metropolitan Rly changes from coke to “smokeless” Welsh coal as locomotive fuel.

1869 — –         Thomas McCall of Kilmarnock builds two velocipedes driven by levers to cranks on the rear wheel.

125th anniversary

1894 Jan  1    Manchester Ship Canal opens to traffic. The first commercial ship to enter Salford docks is the Co-operative Wholesale Society’s SS Pioneer (official opening May 21).

1894 Mar  1    Local Government Act grants new rural district councils (coming into power at end of year) powers over highways and rights of way in local areas.

1894 Apr 30   Claremorris Light Railway opened.

1894 May 19  Richmond Lock and footbridge open on the Thames.

1894 Jun  1    Midland Rly opens Dore–Chinley for regular through passenger traffic.

1894 Jun 30   Tower Bridge opens to traffic in London (steel double bascule & suspension; J. Wolfe Barry, engineer). It incorporates the first power signalling in the British Isles, supplied by Saxby & Farmer.

1894 Jul 13–15  Donegal Rly converts Strabane–Stranorlar from Irish standard to 3 ft gauge (0.91 m).

1894 Jul 20    Act authorises sale of “Old” Grand Union and Leicester & Northampton Union Canals to  Grand Junction Canal Co.

1894 Jul 31    Sheffield & South Yorkshire Navigation Co. agrees purchase of Sheffield Canal, Dearne & Dove Canal, River Dun Navigation and Stainforth & Keadby Canal from MS&LR.

1894 Aug  5   L&NWR opens new double-track Standedge Tunnel.

1894 Aug  7   West Highland Rly opens to Fort William.

1894 Aug 14   Oliver Lodge demonstrates “Hertzian waves” i.e. radio transmission (of Morse code) in the University of Oxford from the Clarendon Laboratory to the University Museum (200 ft/60 m) for the British Association for the Advancement of Science using a modified Branly coherer.

1894 Aug 17   GWR & MR jointly purchase Severn & Wye & Severn Bridge Rly by Act.

1894 Aug 25   Railway & Canal Traffic Act effectively makes freight rates in force at end of 1892 the maxima.

1894 Sep –     First British 4-6-0 locomotive for home service delivered to Highland Rly as “Jones Goods” no. 103* from builders Sharp, Stewart (David Jones, locomotive superintendent).

1894 Sep  1   Death of R.P. Brereton, railway civil engineer (b. 1818).

1894 Oct  1    GPO admits privately-printed postcards to the post. One side must exclusively carry the destination address. These usually sell for ½d. each and require a ½d. adhesive stamp. GPO introduces time codes into postmarks (in clear from 1895).

1894 Oct  4    NER Castle Hills Junction (Northallerton) accident: express collides in rear with mineral train following signals passed at danger at Wiske Moor.

1894 Oct  9    Rudge-Whitworth registered to merge Rudge and Whitworth Cycle Companies of Coventry.

1894 Nov 27   Inverness-shire County Council opens Broomhill Bridge, Grantown-on-Spey (15-span wooden trestle; John Mackenzie, engineer).

1894 Dec –     Frederick Bremer, a plumber and gasfitter from Walthamstow, runs the first British four-wheeled petrol-engined motor car (self-built) on the public highway. This year also Charles Santler of Herefordshire modifies his 1889 steam road vehicle to use an internal combustion engine.

1894 Dec 22   L&NWR Chelford accident: up express collides with runaway goods wagon in bad weather (14 killed).

1894 — –         GNR Castlefield Viaduct completed on Manchester Deansgate goods branch (Richard Johnson, engineer).

1894 — –         Construction of first oil-engined locomotive, an experimental unit designed by William Dent Priestman and built by his company, Priestman Brothers of Hull.

1894 — –         First successful permanent installation of track circuiting on a railway in the British Isles, GNR Gas Works Tunnel (King’s Cross).

1894 — –         Evans O’Donnell formed as railway signalling manufacturers.

Centenary

1919 Jan 1–12   LB&SCR Brighton staff strike over travelling time for Lancing Works staff.

1919 Jan 18   Dover–Ostend ferry resumes for civilian use.

1919 Jan 18   Bentley Motors incorporated.

1919 Jan 23   “Harbour riot” in Glasgow: confrontation between black and white merchant seamen.

1919 Jan –      City of Derry Tramways Co. (horse-worked) ceases operation.

1919 Feb  1    8-hour day conceded to railwaymen.

1919 Feb  3    SECR Folkestone–Boulogne ferry resumes for civilian use.

1919 Feb 23   Death in service of Guy Calthrop, general manager, L&NWR (b. 1870).

1919 May  1   Air Ministry permits private aviation to restart.

1919 May 22  Devon General Omnibus & Touring Co. incorporated.

1919 May 24  First scheduled air service operated by Avro Transport Co., Blackpool South Shore–Manchester (Alexandra Park)–Southport (Birkdale Sands), using Avro 504 biplanes.

1919 May 30  Sir Albert Stanley replaces Lord George Hamilton as chairman of Underground Group.

1919 Jun –      Dutton Horse Bridge completed on Weaver Navigation (laminated greenheart arch; J.A. Saner, engineer).

1919 Jun –      National (Steam Car Co. Ltd) licences its first motor buses, in Essex.

1919 Jun  6    Ribble Motor Services incorporated.

1919 Jun 14–15 A Vickers Vimy (with Rolls-Royce Eagle engines) piloted by John Alcock DSC with navigator Arthur Whitten Brown makes the first nonstop transatlantic flight, from St John’s, Newfoundland, to Clifden, Connemara, Ireland. On Dec 18 Alcock is killed in an aircraft crash at Rouen.

1919 Jul  1     Edinburgh Corporation Tramways takes over Edinburgh & District Tramways.

1919 Jul  1     London’s first airport opens at Hounslow Heath.

1919 Jul 2–6   Airship R34 makes the first transatlantic flight by dirigible, and the first westbound flight, from RAF East Fortune, East Lothian, to Mineola, New York. She returns Jul 10–13 to RNAS Pulham, Norfolk, where a mooring mast of guyed steel lattice box beams has been erected.

1919 Jul 7–9   Body of GER ferry captain Charles Fryatt repatriated from Belgium.

1919 Jul 14    Dieppe–Newhaven ferry resumes.

1919 Aug  4   Hampstall ferry disaster, River Severn, Worcestershire: SS May Queen upsets ferry boat (9 killed).

1919 Aug 25   First scheduled international air service, operated by Aircraft Travel & Transport Co. from Hounslow Heath Aerodrome to Paris Le Bourget, using de Havilland DH16.

1919 Aug 29   National agreement on railway locomotive footplate staff conditions of service.

1919 Sep –     Pwllheli Corporation Tramways (horse-worked) ceases operation.

1919 Sep –     London General Omnibus Co. introduces K-type double-deck bus, characterised by forward control and wheel arches.

1919 Sep 21   RMS Mauretania inaugurates Cunard Line’s express service from Southampton to New York via Cherbourg.

1919 Sep 23   Board of Trade transfers relevant functions to newly-formed Ministry of Transport (established May 19; authorised Aug 15; Sir Eric Geddes, first Minister of Transport, serving until 7 Nov 1921).

1919 Sep 27–Oct 6        National rail strike called by National Union of Railwaymen over revised standard wage rates. Elliott Brothers (‘Royal Blue’) begin a Bournemouth–London motor coach service.

1919 Oct  1    St Helens Corporation Tramways takes over New St Helens & District Tramways.

1919 Oct  4    T.M. Fairclough & Sons Ltd registered to take over Fairclough family haulage businesses.

1919 Nov 19   Death of W.H. Bartholomew, Aire & Calder Navigation engineer (b. 1831).

1919 Nov 19   National (Steam Car Co. Ltd) withdraws its central London stage carriage routes (by agreement with LGOC), operating its last (steam) bus on route 12 Dulwich–Shepherd’s Bush; it will now concentrate on its provincial operations, having opened its first westcountry motor bus depot, at Stroud, in Oct.

1919 Dec  2   Death of John P. O’Donnell, railway signalling engineer (Banstead) (b. 1859).

1919 Dec 11   Ex-HAPAG liner SS Imperator (1912) makes her first voyage for the Cunard Line, New York–Liverpool; renamed Berengaria, 1921.

1919 — –         Glenanne–Loughgilly Tramway closed.

1919 — –         Delaine of Bourne first operate motor buses.

1919 — –         Princess Coaches begin operation in Southampton.

1919 — –         Lamberts Removals established by George Lambert in Haslemere.

1919              This year the Co-operative Wholesale Society acquires Cotton Industry Motor Transport Ltd’s fleet and works in Stretford and vehicle designs of Bell Brothers.

75th anniversary

1944 Jan 16   LNER Ilford accident: collision in rear following signal passed at danger (9 killed).

1944 Jan 24   Fishguard & Rosslare ferry SS St David, requisitioned as hospital ship, sunk off Anzio (29 killed).

1944 Jan 27   Death of Rob (“Ruby”) M. Holland Martin, chairman, SR; succeeded by Col. Eric Gore-Brown.

1944 Jan –      LNER lays first flat-bottom turnout on a British main line, at Harringay.

1944 Feb 14   Death of Arthur C. Stamer, locomotive engineer, (L)NER (Darlington) (b. 1869).

1944 Feb  c.   Sir William Stanier retires as LMS CME and Charles Fairburn is promoted from the acting position to replace him.

1944 Mar  7    Death of Richard Maunsell, ex-SR CME (Ashford) (b. Ireland 1868).

1944 Mar 13   British announce severe restrictions on issue of new permits for travel between Great Britain and Ireland.

1944 Mar 22   GWR Paddington station bombed.

1944 Apr  1    LMS operates last train on Wick & Lybster Light Railway (opened 1903).

1944 Apr  2    Restriction on travel to south coast.

1944 Apr  5    Remaining railway refreshment cars withdrawn.

1944 Apr c.    LNER publishes George Dow’s centenary booklet The First Railway in Norfolk.

1944 May 15 LMS Mossband accident: down night express derailed due to track defect (3 killed).

1944 Jun  2    LNER Soham explosion (fireman killed).

1944 Jun  5    Control of Lamport & Holt Line (Liverpool) acquired by Blue Star Line.

1944 Jun  6    D-Day for Normandy landings (‘Operation Neptune’). First components for the two Mulberry harbours are shipped today. The landings destroy the last operating section of the 60 cm gauge Chemins de Fer du Calvados.

1944 Jun mid LT District/Piccadilly lines viaduct between Hammersmith and Ravenscourt Park badly damaged by V-1 flying bomb attacks; services disrupted for six weeks

1944 Jun 17   SR goods train between Elephant & Castle and Loughborough Juncn wrecked by V-1.

1944 Jun 18   SR Hungerford Bridge damaged by V-1; Charing Cross closed until Jun 20; services disrupted until Dec 4.

1944 Jun 19   Death of Richard Deeley, last Midland Rly CME (Isleworth) (b. 1855).

1944 Jun 20   A V-2 rocket becomes the first man-made object to reach the edge of space. V-2 rocket attacks on London begin on Sep 8.

1944 Smr –     Increase in fuel allowance permits reinstatement of most off-peak bus services.

1944 Jul 12    SR bridge carrying Catford loop over South London line damaged by V-1; services resume over temporary replacement Jul 23.

1944 Jul 26    WD diesel shunters 32 & 29 are landed from LCT 909 on Juno beach in Normandy; 30* & 33* are landed on Utah beach at about the same time.

1944 Jul 29    GWR Paddington station closed for three hours due to holiday crowds until government authorises provision of extra trains to clear them.

1944 Aug 30   LNER South Harrow tunnel boiler explosion: USATC S160 class 2-8-0 1707 firebox collapses probably as result of water gauge misreading and faulty fusible plug (crew killed).

1944 Aug 31   Last day of V-1 flying bomb attacks on London area; one causes damage at SR Falconwood station.

1944 Sep  8–15 LMS transfers two class 3F 0-6-0Ts to its Northern Counties Committee as class Y.

1944 Sep 13   SR Dover Priory station hit by shell (several killed).

1944 Sep 22   First PLUTO oil pipeline (a HAIS cable) comes into operation, Shanklin Chine–Cherbourg (Operation BAMBI).

1944 Oct 16   GWR Paddington double derailment.

1944 Aut –      Last commercial traffic on Lancaster Canal north of Lancaster (coal to Kendal gasworks).

1944 Nov –     L.T.C. Rolt’s Narrow Boat published (by Eyre & Spottiswoode).

1944 Nov –     Most suspended local bus services reinstated (except on Sundays).

1944 Nov  2   SR Hampton Court Juncn signalling put out of action by V-2 rocket attack for two days.

1944 Nov  5   SR Bermondsey bridge destroyed by V-2 rocket; services resume over temporary replacement Nov 14.

1944 Nov 13   Railway Air Services resumes flights from London with reinstatement of Croydon–Liverpool service, using de Havilland DH86.

1944 Dec 14   GSR Straboe accident: night mail collides in rear with goods stationary for fire cleaning (1 postal worker killed; only fatal accident in GSR’s history).

1944 Dec 21   London Midland & Scottish Railway (Canals) Act authorises closure to navigation of 150 miles (240 km) of waterways: Ulverston, Coalport and Shrewsbury Canals, Montgomery and Leek branches, most of Llangollen branch (but pleasure boats permitted above Chirk) and parts of Cromford and Ashby Canals; also part of Huddersfield Narrow Canal (including Standedge Tunnel), with part transferred with Huddersfield Broad Canal to Calder & Hebble Navigation. LM&SR Act (same date) authorises continuation for 10 years of supply of surplus water from Shropshire Union Canal to existing customers.

1944 Dec –     Union Pacific (US) takes delivery from ALCO of the railroad’s last new steam locomotive, class FEF-3 4-8-4 844, which it will never withdraw.* This year, two other Class I US railroads have taken delivery of their last steam locomotives: Baltimore & Ohio (Oct 16) and Southern Pacific (Mar 19).

50th anniversary

1969              BR achieves railway operating surplus of £48.5M and overall surplus of £14.7M, subsidy now being counted into passenger income.

1969              Peak year for UK truck manufacture, 199K being produced.

1969 early –    CIÉ introduces its first dedicated container service, Dublin–Cork.

1969 Jan –      First ex-SR locomotive removed from Woodham Brothers’ Barry scrapyard for preservation, 31618*.

1969 Jan  1    Transport Act 1968 comes into effect. National Bus Company begins operations. National Freight Corporation takes over road transport operations from THC (retaining its headquarters) and National Carriers (former Sundries Division) and Freightliners (51%) from BRB (which is forbidden to operate goods vehicles). Scottish Transport Group takes over management of Scottish Bus Group Ltd and Caledonian Steam Packet Co. Ltd. Also, LT takes legal ownership of Bromley–Barking line (station operation from 26 Apr 1970). (A.N. Todd, Chairman & T.W.H. Gailey, Chief Executive, NBC; Sir Reginald Wilson, Chairman & G.W. Quick Smith, Chief Executive, NFC; W.M. Little, Chief Executive, STG.)

1969 Jan  1    THC acquires majority holding in tour operator Lunn Poly, guaranteeing its air charter arrangements.

1969 Jan  4    BR ScR runs last trains on St Andrews branch.

1969 Jan  5    BR runs last trains on Waverley route (until 2015). Closure of Galashiels leaves no stations open in Selkirkshire.

1969 Jan  5    Gatwick accident: Ariana Afghan Airways Boeing 727 YA-FAR crashes into house (50 killed).

1969 Jan  8    First ex-GWR locomotive purchased from Woodham Brothers’ Barry scrapyard for preservation, 5322*; removed Mar 8 to Caerphilly.

1969 Jan 26   BR closes Ryde Pier Tramway.

1969 Feb c.    Stockport Corporation 97* enters service, the last open rear platform double-deck bus in the UK (Leyland Titan PD3/East Lancs).

1969 Feb 19   Ruston & Hornsby Ltd despatch the last of c.6K internal combustion industrial locomotives from their Lincoln works (544998).

1969 Feb 19   Liverpool Corporation introduces first one-man double-deck bus operation using purpose-built rear-engine vehicle. (The claim to priority has been disputed by Manchester and elsewhere.)

1969 Feb 24   BR Board authorises High Speed Diesel Train (HST) prototype design (Terry Miller, Chief Engineer (Traction & Rolling Stock); Kenneth Grange, consultant industrial designer).

1969 Mar  2    First flight of BAC/Aérospatiale Concorde supersonic airliner, prototype 001* from Toulouse (first flight of British prototype 002*, from Bristol Apr 9). Sixteen production models will be built up to 1978.

1969 Mar  6–29  TSS Encounter Bay makes maiden voyage as world’s first purpose-built deepwater container ship (1,530 teu) for Overseas Containers Ltd, Rotterdam–Fremantle (British traffic being transhipped from Tilbury due to TGWU dispute).

1969 Mar  7    LTB officially opens Victoria Line throughout, the first wholly new Tube line since 1907 and the first in bored tunnel since 1947.

1969 Mar 17   Longhope life-boat disaster: RNLB TGB overwhelmed by high seas (all 8 crew killed).

1969 Mar 19   United Kingdom Oil Pipeline, Stanlow–Shell Haven, opens.

1969 Mar 22   Associated Container Transportation’s ACT 1 begins maiden voyage to Australia.

1969 Mar 23   BR runs last cross-London (parcels) train through Snow Hill tunnel (until 1988).

1969 Spr?      First bus in all-over commercial advertising livery, LT RM1737* for Silexine Paints.

1969 Apr  1    Merseyside, SELNEC, Tyneside and West Midlands Passenger Transport Authorities set up under terms of Transport Act 1968 to provide integrated public transport, operating through Passenger Transport Executives, combining bus and ferry fleets of former municipalities and other major operators, wef Oct 1 (WM), Nov 1 (SELNEC), Dec 1 (Merseyside) and 1 Jan 1970 (Tyneside).

1969 Apr  5    Dart Valley Light Railway, Buckfastleigh–Totnes (Riverside), opens (officially May 21, by Dr Beeching) as commercially-operated steam-worked tourist line using heritage GWR-design equipment. Offpeak services this season are worked push-pull. (Last passenger service on line 1 Nov 1959.)

1969 Apr  9    Wolverhampton Corporation’s Sikh bus crews win the right to wear turbans on duty.

1969 Apr 11   Pay and Efficiency Agreement for BR workshop staff concluded, reducing number of grades and abolishing piecework.

1969 Apr 18   Jones (bus operator) of Aberbeeg sold to NBC.

1969 Apr 20   Willow Wren make last delivery of imported bulk grain from Brentford to Whitworth Brothers’ mill, Wellingborough, via Grand Union Canal and River Nene, the last regular commercial traffic passing to the Nene. Flamingo and Beverley* carry the last load. BR take over the traffic from Tilbury.

1969 Apr 24   BLMC launches (in Oporto) its first new model, the Austin Maxi, Britain’s first production hatchback family saloon car, with 5-speed transmission (Alec Issigonis, engineer). Production (at Cowley) continues to 1981.

1969 May  2   Very Large Crude Carrier Esso Northumbria launched by Swan Hunter at Wallsend, the largest ship built in the UK to this date at 254,277 dwt.

1969 May  2–7   Cunard dual purpose cruise liner TSS Queen Elizabeth 2* (launched Clydebank 1967) makes maiden transatlantic voyage, Southampton–New York.

1969 May  5   BR ER runs last train on Lynn–Hunstanton branch.

1969 May  5   (wef) BR closes Manchester Exchange and Central stations.

1968 May  5   BR officially deletes the suffix ‘Halt’ from the name of remaining stopping places carrying it in England and Wales.

1969 May  5   BR ER inaugurates Lea Valley electrification. Mk III overhead line equipment with headspans generally (rather than portal structures) and metric dimensions.

1969 May  7   BR Morpeth accident: high-speed derailment on curve (6 killed).

1969 May  7   Union Pacific 6900*, first ‘Centennial’ DDA40X D-DDE from General Motors EMD, at 6600hp the most powerful diesel locomotive class in the world, makes first trip.

1969 May 29  Shannon Ferries Ltd begin operation, Tarbert (Co. Kerry)–Kilmer (Co. Clare), with MV Shannon Heather.

1969 Jun        BR LMR opens power signal boxes at Trent, Derby and Saltley with NX panels, controlling 242 route miles (387 km) and replacing 180 manual boxes.

1969 Jun c.    NIR introduces conductor guard working on all trains.

1969 Jun  1    BR holding in Huddersfield Joint Omnibus Committee passes to Amalgamated Passenger Transport (NBC). On Oct 1, Huddersfield Corporation buys out this holding.

1969 Jun  1    Vickers Vimy biplane replica* built by volunteers of Vintage Aircraft & Flying Association (Brooklands) first flies.

1969 Jun 10–Jul 23  Four serious derailments on BR due to buckled continuously-welded rails.

1969 Jun 10   Seaham Harbour Dock Co.’s steam PT Reliant (1907) leaves station.

1969 Jun 20   Llandudno cable car opened.

1969 Jun 25   Vehicle & Driving Licences Act authorises centralisation of licensing.

1969 Jun 26   EEC Regulation 1191 Public Service Obligation requires state rail subsidy to be restricted to unprofitable passenger services.

1969 Jun 30   BR/Godfrey Davis Rail Drive self-drive car hire facility introduced at 70 mainline stations.

1969 Jul –       Orkney Islands Shipping Co. SS Earl Sigurd (1931) makes final voyage, the last steamer on the Northern Isles service.

1969 Jul c.     Pelican Crossing introduced.

1969 Jul  1     David MacBrayne Ltd passes to management of Scottish Transport Group (50% share each from Transport Holding Co. and Coast Lines Ltd). Bus operations transfer progressively to Highland Omnibuses 1970.

1969 Jul  4     Last commercial traffic on Wey Navigation.

1969 Jul 20    Neil Armstrong becomes first man to walk on the moon (US NASA Apollo 11 mission).

1969 Jul 26    Birmingham City Council officially opens James Brindley Walk canalside conservation scheme at Farmers Bridge Locks, Birmingham & Fazeley Canal (Peter White, job architect).

1969 Jul 31    NIR starts to take delivery of its first diesel locomotives, 0-6-0DH shunters from English Electric/Vulcan Foundry.

1969 Jul 31    BR MV Vortigern enters service on Dover–Boulogne passage, the last (dual purpose) train ferry built.

1969 Aug 14   (?Sep 13) BR PS Ryde* makes its final Isle of Wight ferry crossing, the last Solent paddle steamer.

1969 Aug 15   Start of Troubles in Northern Ireland: six Belfast Corporation Transport Daimler buses destroyed in rioting.

1969 late Smr?  North Norfolk Railway Co. Ltd issues prospectus as public company offering shares (with little prospect of financial return) in this heritage line.

1969 Sep –     Central Gulf Lines, New Orleans, takes delivery of world’s first Lighter Aboard Ship (LASH) vessel, Acadia Forest (Jerome L. Goldman, naval architect).

1969 Sep 16   P. & A. Campbell’s TSMV St Trillo runs final Menai Bridge/Llandudno excursion.

1969 Oct  1    West Midlands Passenger Transport Executive (the first PTE to operate) takes control of Birmingham, Walsall, West Bromwich and Wolverhampton municipal bus fleets (Walsall trolleybuses last operate in regular service 2 Oct 1970).

1969 Oct  1    Isle of Sark Shipping Co Ltd takes over service to the island from Commodore Shipping with MV Ile de Serk (ex Island Commodore).

1969 Oct  1    Post Office becomes public corporation; Postmaster General becomes Minister of Post & Telecommunications (John Stonehouse). Guernsey and Jersey set up their own postal administrations.

1969 Oct 18–19 ‘Welshpool Weekend’ (“Operation Mudsplash”): Montgomeryshire Canal through Welshpool cleared in a ‘big dig’ by volunteers. SUCS waterbus Powis Princess launched here 16 May 1970.

1969 Oct 25   Last steam-worked industrial narrow gauge (2 ft 6 in./76 cm) railway operates, Bowater’s, Sittingbourne (portion donated for preservation officially Oct 4, Triumph*).

1969 Oct 31   RCT runs official last trains on Longmoor Military Railway.

1969 Nov  9   BR LMR completes replacement Besses o’ th’ Barn bridge over A56 Bury Old Road and M62 motorway (prestressed concrete box girder with longitudinal cantilever decks; W.F. Beatty, chief civil engineer).

1969 Nov 22   LT introduces one-man double-deck bus operation using XA (Atlantean) 22 on route 233, Croydon.

1969 Nov 29   Completion of Trans-Australian standard-gauge.

1969 Dec –     Hay’s Dock, London, closes.

1969 Dec  3   Cardiff Corporation runs its last trolleybuses in normal service, the last in Wales (official closure 11 Jan 1970).

1969 Dec  5   Cork County Council opens Dursey Island cable car.

1969 Dec 10? Shannon grab hopper dredger Coill an Eo launched, last vessel built at Liffey Dockyard.

1969 Dec 31   BR closes Inverurie locomotive works.

1969 — –         London Underground introduces recorded “Mind the Gap” station announcements.

1969 — –         BR withdraws last pre-Grouping directors’ saloon, ex-GNR 706E* (1897).

1969 — –         ASLEF withdraws from Ireland, its membership being transferred to NATE.

1969 — –         OIÉ opens Great Southern Inn, Killarney, first of three wholly new hotels built under its auspices.

1969 — –         Increase in fuel duty rebate for buses.

1969 — –         City Link express delivery service set up, initially utilising BR Red Star for trunking.

1969 — –         First miniroundabout introduced, Peterborough (Frank Blackmore, designer; this example abandoned 2008).

1969 — –         Preston Bus Station opens (80 bus gates & multistorey car park; Keith Ingham of Building Design Partnership, architect; Ove Arup & Partners, engineers).

1969 — –         Freight Transport Association formed by merger of Traders’ Road Transport Association, Traders’ Traffic Association and Traders’ Co-ordinating Committee.

1969 — –         Regent’s Canal Dock closed to commercial shipping.

1969 — –         The Maritime Trust established to co-ordinate preservation of historic vessels, largely on initiative of the Duke of Edinburgh.

1969 — –         Immingham Oil Terminal opens.

1969 c.          Boalloy patent Tautliner curtain-sided truck body.

25th anniversary

1994 Jan  1       National Roads Authority established in Irish Republic, under terms of Roads Act 1993, to oversee national routes.

1994 Jan 6     Glenlight Shipping Ltd ceases operation of Scottish coastal “puffers”.

1994 Jan 19   LBL sells Westlink (Stanwell Buses Ltd) to MBO, first London bus operator privatised.

1994 Jan 31   Irish railway Travelling Post Office withdrawn.

1994 Jan 31   BMW acquires Rover Group car manufacturers from British Aerospace.

1994 Feb –     National Power begins operating its own mineral trains, using GM-built class 59 diesel locomotives.

1994 Feb  9    InterCity/European Passenger Services introduce Tribute ticketing, St Pancras Travel Centre and Newcastle Telesales.

1994 Feb 20   First protest camp set up on Solsbury Hill to resist construction of Batheaston by-pass.

1994 Feb 28   Railways (Safety Case) Regulations. Require all railway organisations to submit a formal safety case to HMRI (or apply for exemption).

1994 Mar  1    City of Oxford Motor Services sold to Go-Ahead.

1994 Mar  4    BRB sells Meldon Quarry and associated rail infrastructure to English China Clays Ltd.

1994 Mar 11   Badgerline purchases Butler Woodhouse, parent of PMT, Crosville, S. Turner and Stoniers, bus operators.

1994 Mar 21   South Yorkshire Supertram opens first section, Sheffield–Meadowhall.

1994 Mar 22   South Yorkshire bus operator Yorkshire Rider acquired by Badgerline.

1994 Mar 24   Transport Police (Jurisdiction) Act defines BTP’s jurisdiction for first time.

1994 Mar 30   Highways Agency established as an executive agency of the Department for Transport to operate and maintain motorways and trunk roads.

1994 Apr  1    Railways Act 1993 comes into effect. BRB creates subsidiary train operating units (including three trainload freight companies, Load-Haul, Mainline Freight and Trans-Rail) and rolling stock companies and BR Infrastructure Services. Railtrack transfers to Government control. Waterloo & City line transfers to London Underground (Central Line) wef Apr 5. Res takes over operation of Royal Train.

1994 Apr  1    Railways (Safety Critical Work) Regulations. Define staff competencies.

1994 Apr  1    Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail Regulations.

1994 Apr  5    Railways & Other Transport Systems (Approval of Works, Plant & Equipment) Regulations (ROTS). HMRI approval required for introduction of new works or rolling stock.

1994 Apr 15   Rider Holdings (Yorkshire bus operator) sold to Badgerline.

1994 May –     Minister for Transport in London announces that red livery will be retained on buses working LT tendered services.

1994 May  6   Channel Tunnel officially opens.

1994 May  9   Go-Ahead Northern Ltd renamed Go-Ahead Group and floated on stock market.

1994 May 16  IÉ introduces Dublin South Western (Kildare) ‘Arrow’ commuter services from Heuston, with reopened or new stations, using class 2600, its first second-generation DMUs, built for Mitsui by Tokyu Car Corporation (1993–4), first Japanese-built stock in British Isles. Also reinstates regular daily rail service to Ennis.

1994 May 23  Shannon–Erne Waterway officially opens, incorporating Ballinamore & Ballyconnell Canal (disused since 1869).

1994 May 27  Last passenger trains use Ditton, first Railtrack station closure.

1994 Jun –      Proudmutual bus holding company (incorporating Northumbria and Kentish Bus) sold to British Bus; also acquires Luton & District.

1994 Jun  1    First revenue freight train through Channel Tunnel (car traffic).

1994 Jun  9    IÉ takes delivery of first 201 class diesel locomotive from General Motors EMD, London, Ontario, delivered by air.

1994 Jul –       Sea to Sea (C2C) Cycle Route, Whitehaven–Sunderland/Tynemouth, opens, making partial use of disused railways.

1994 Jul c.     British Regional Airline Ltd established to consolidate operations of British Midland.

1994 Jul  7     British Bus acquires Proudmutual (holding company of Northumbria, Kentish Bus and Luton & District).

1994 Jul 18    Stagecoach purchases Western Scottish.

1994 Jul 25    Eurotunnel HGV shuttle service open to general users, Folkestone (Dollands Moor)–Calais (Coquelles) (includes weekends from Nov 12).

1994 Jul 29    Tyne & Wear bus operator Busways Travel Services acquired by Stagecoach.

1994 Jul 31    Threefellows Carrying (narrow canal carriers) ceases trading.

1994 Aug  6   Death of Charles Hadfield, canal historian (Gloucestershire) (b. 1909).

1994 Sep  2      LBL sells Centrewest to MEBO, first major London bus operator privatised.

1994 Sep  5   Prestwick International Airport opens own railway station.

1994 Sep  6      LBL sells bus operators East London and Selkent to Stagecoach.

1994 Sep 14   Ramsgate port passenger linkspan collapses (6 killed).

1994 Sep 29   LBL sells Leaside Buses to Cowie Group.

1994 Sep 30   LRT runs last Epping–Ongar and Aldwych branch shuttles.

1994 Sep ?    First female heritage railway general manager, Margaret Parker, Mid-Hants Railway.

1994 Oct –      Southwold Railway Co. wound up (last worked 11 Apr 1929).

1994 Oct  7    LBL sells bus operator Metroline to MEBO.

1994 Oct 10   SMT Omnibuses sold to GRT.

1994 Oct 15   BR Cowden accident, NSE: head-on single-line collision after signal passed at danger (5 killed). First passenger deaths on BR since Jul 1991.

1994 Oct 17   LBL sells bus operator London Central to Go-Ahead Group.

1994 Oct 21   Heathrow tunnel collapse: rail tunnel under construction for Heathrow Express fails.

1994 Oct 26   LBL sells bus operator London Northern to MTL.

1994 Nov –     ABB Transportation York works rolls out first class 365 Network Express EMU for BR NSE, under leasing deal with Abbey National and Royal Bank of Scotland.

1994 Nov –     North East Bus sold by Westcourt Group to West Midlands Travel.

1994 Nov  1   Clydeside sold to British Bus.

1994 Nov  2   LBL sells London General Transport Services to MEBO.

1994 Nov  4   LBL sells London United Busways to MEBO.

1994 Nov  7   Reiver (Scottish bus operator) sold to GRT.

1994 Nov 11   Darlington Transport goes into receivership following high-profile competition from Busways (Stagecoach), including transfer of majority of drivers Nov 4.

1994 Nov 13 LRT opens new Stratford bus station to public (Soji Abass, in-house architect).

1994 Nov 14   Eurostar begins Discovery public service, Waterloo International–Paris Nord/Bruxelles Midi. Dover Marine station closes. (Nick Grimshaw, architect, Waterloo International.) (Full Eurostar service 28 May 1995.)

1994 Nov 26   Strasbourg opens new tramway system using ABB Transportation (York)-built all-low-floor Eurotrams.

1994 Nov 28   NIR opens Cross Harbour Rail Link, Belfast, including Dargan Bridge. York Road terminus closed.

1994 Dec 22   Eurotunnel private car shuttle service open to general users, Folkestone (Dollands Moor)–Calais (Coquelles) (full ‘turn up and go’ service from 3 Apr 1995).

1994 — –         BR establishes Railtest from Central Services Production unit and transfers charter train haulage from InterCity to Res.

1994 — –         Rail Gourmet established as on-train caterer.

1994 — –         Iarnród Éireann adopts new corporate identity, IÉ.

1994 — –         Titchfield Canal sea-lock restored by local authorities.

1994 — –         Traffic Signs Regulations and General Directions revised, introducing “Guiildford rules” permitting non-motorway direction signs of one type to incorporate panels with background colours distinguishing other types of route, and phasing out blue-bordered local direction signs.

1994 — –         Sutherland Transport & Trading Co. Ltd ceases operations.

1994 — –         Isle of Man Department of Transport created by merger of transport functions of Department of Tourism, Leisure and Transport and Department of Highways, Ports and Properties.

Entries in italic indicate foreign locations; * indicates an item now preserved